When were horses used for transportation in America

Before Christopher Columbus sailed to the New World on his second expedition in 1493, there were no horses in North America. All of the horses on the continent had disappeared mysteriously thousands of years ago. Prior to the reintroduction of horses, American Indians traveled the land and transported their goods by walking or by dog-drawn vehicles. This changed when Columbus and other explorers ventured to the New World and brought horses to use as transportation across North America In all, the 1700s was an age of growth and movement largely due to the increased use of the horse. Ride and Tie. Early American roads were merely Indian paths, only passable on foot or horseback. Horses were scarce in colonial America, so an ingenious system of sharing a horse was devised based on ride and tie Around 10,000 years ago, some of these wild horses crossed over the Bering land bridge that connected early America and Asia Road transport for horses began as early as 1902, but trailers designed to be drawn by motorized vehicles were not manufactured commercially until 1912, and for many decades it remained a short distance option, since there were few vehicles around that could cope with pulling a horse trailer long haul Horses have been a crucial component of American life and culture since the founding of the nation. In 2008, there were an estimated 9.2 million horses in the United States, with 4.6 million citizens involved in businesses related to horses. Notably, there are about 82,000 feral horses that roam freely in the wild in certain parts of the country, mostly in the Western United States

In the New World of America, Rhode Island served as a primary horse breeding region in the 1700's. Horses provided reliable transportation for the Americans. This was a preferred method of getting around to the rickety roads being built in small-town America. Horses proved themselves to be invaluable back then as people migrated to the west They made a stop in Guadeloupe, stayed anchored for six days while the horses were put ashore for exercise and forage, then were reloaded for the four week journey to La Navidad where they were used against the local Native Americans. Then they were taken by ship to the new colony of Isabella where on January 2, 1494 their ocean voyage ended In NYC the tipping point was 1908. In 1908 the number of cars passed the number of horses for the first time and irrevocably. There were many things that needed to happen for the car to surpass the horse, one of the most important being the surface of the roads North Americans employed four million horses in 1840 for agricultural work and travel. By 1900 they were harnessing more than 24 million (a six-fold increase) to plow fields, as well as pull street..

Introduction: Transportation in America and the Carriage Age . These roads were wide enough for large horse-drawn vehicles. By 1820, turnpikes had been built or were under construction throughout the United States. People marveled at the condition of the new roads and were delighted with the reduction in trave Origins of the Horse in North America. The modern horse (Equus caballus) evolved on the North American continent. Disappearing from this area around 10,000 years ago (end of the Pleistocene epoch), it survived on the European/Asian continent. Horses were brought back to North America by the Spanish in the 1500s Forty million years ago, horses first emerged in North America, but after migrating to Asia over the Bering land bridge, horses disappeared from this continent at least 10,000 years ago. So for.. Concord Coach: American made Concord coaches were tall and wide and incorporated leather straps for suspension that made the ride smoother than steel spring suspension.They were also extravagant, costing $1000 or more at a time when workers were paid about a dollar a day. Wells, Fargo & Co. was one of the largest buyers of the Concord coach.Today the company still displays its original Concord. Horses were carriage horses (for the wealthy and elite) or road horses (a working horse for the road). They were kept in stables or, among royalty and aristocracy, in mews, so named because the buildings originally housed birds used for falconry and their cyclic moulting of feathers was known as mewing

Start studying 6.1 Quiz UNITED BY TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. HORSES. When _____ were brought to America in the early 1600's, some travel began between the colonies how many years were stagecoaches used in America. CONCORD, NEW HAMPSHIRE. the best. Many times, throughout the wars, horses were vital for transportation, in addition to being used in the cavalry. During WWI, cavalries were still commonly used as powerful regiments. Horses were also used to transport equipment, as tanks and trucks often broke down because they were new inventions The horse and cart is one of the simplest forms of transportation known to man, used throughout history from the fifth millennium B.C onward. Though the variations of this vehicle developed.. Even the history of horse domestication is a tricky subject. The ongoing consensus is that horses were first ridden around 3500 BC. Around 2500 BC, war horses normally strapped on chariots were widely used in warfare, and horses had to be equipped with some form of protective foot gear made out of leather Horse Power. John Aucock near Ft. Bliss Cabinet card photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1900 2003.121.1. In addition to working cattle and pulling carriages and wagons, horses were also used for general transportation. This photograph illustrates the use of the horse as transportation by farmers, town dwellers, and other non-cowboys

  1. In the modern world, where technology-based speed transport facilities are available, we often forget that there was a time when horses were the main mode of transportation all over. In bygone days, horses were an integral part of everyday life, be it for trading, transportation, or warfare. Horse riding requires skill and proficiency
  2. Horse-drawn delivery wagons remained in use well into the automobile age. Even in the 1920s, it wasn't unusual to see milk, ice, or produce delivered by horse--especially in smaller towns. Horses were well suited to the frequent stops and starts along a route and could negotiate poor roads better than early motorized vehicles. As roads improved and trucks became less expensive to operate and.
  3. By the 1870s, New Yorkers were taking over 100 million horsecar trips per year and by 1880 there were at least 150,000 horses in the city. Some of these provided transportation for people while others served to move freight from trains into and around the growing metropolis
  4. A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public transport coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses. It is strongly sprung and generally drawn by four horses.. Widely used before steam-powered, rail transport was available, a stagecoach made long scheduled trips using stage stations or posts where the stagecoach's horses would be replaced.
  5. ate ancestry, a mix of whatever breeds were available
  6. A true horse of the Confederacy, Traveller was a Virginia-born Saddlebred originally named Jeff Davis after the President of the Confederate States of America. In 1862, General Robert E. Lee purchased the grey from Captain Joseph M. Broun, and rode him throughout the duration of the Civil War
  7. The German Army, strapped for motorised transport because its factories were needed to produce tanks and aircraft, used around 2.75 million horses—more than it had used in World War I. One German infantry division in Normandy in 1944 had 5,000 horses

Colonial Horses International Museum of the Hors

A History of Horses In America - Bel-Rea Institute of

American Indians used horses for transport, but many did not use wagons, they used a type of 'drag' called a Travois. The first mentions i found were about american indians that used it like a. Transportation. They used horses, sleds, wagons, boats and covered wagons, but they mostly walked. When they traveled it very slow and hard. The best way for them to travel was by boat in lakes, rivers and oceans. When they traveled far they would use the covered wagon, it is like a house on wheels. They also used the wagon for the crops they. The American transportation system started with horses and boats. It now includes everything from container trucks to airplanes to motorcycles. Yet, in some ways, the system has been a victim of its own success. Many places struggle with traffic problems as more and more cars fill the roads. And a lot of people do not just drive cars anymore

1776-1800. During the latter part of the 18th century, farmers relied on oxen and horses to power crude wooden plows. All sowing was accomplished using a hand-held hoe, reaping of hay and grain with a sickle, and threshing with a flail. But in the 1790s, the horse-drawn cradle and scythe were introduced, the first of several inventions The Civil War is not normally called a horse's war, but it most certainly was: cavalry and artillery horses, draft and pack horses and mules, approximately one million on the Union side alone. The seat of war was also the lap of America's horse culture - or, rather, cultures, north and south. He notes that in the South, horses were. The adoption of the horse was one of the single most important discoveries for early human societies. Horses and other animals were used to pull wheeled vehicles, chariots, carts and wagons and horses were increasingly used for riding in the Near East from at least c. 2000 BC onwards. Horses were used in war, in hunting and as a means of transport

When horses began to be used, the idea for the modern ambulance began to come into play. Introducing America's First Ambulance: Key Information & Service Summary. During colonial times in the USA, it is likely that there were instances of people using horse-drawn carriages to transport injured people. However, we cannot confirm or deny this Development of the Horse-Drawn CoachOverviewAlthough carriages were used in continental Europe as early as 1294, vehicles to carry passengers first appeared in England in 1555. That they did not appear earlier was due to the appalling condition of English roads, which were little more than cattle tracks and water courses. Winter was an especially treacherous time for wheeled transport Horses were introduced early on across North America (Mexico is also N. America) by Spanish explorers and colonists (along with rats, cows, and diseases) in the late 1500s and early 1600s. Wild horse populations flourished in the wild open, growing, and between this and nomadic tribes like the Comanche or Apache stealing them, they quickly.

A History of Transporting Horses Museum of the Hors

At the beginning of the twentieth century, in fact, writers in popular and scientific periodicals were decrying the pollution of the public streets and demanding the banishment of the horse from American cities in vigorous terms. The presence of 120,000 horses in New York City, wrote one 1908 authority for example, is an economic. Were it not for the Revolutionary Army's use of horseback messengers, Americans today might still be bowing to Her Royal Highness, the Queen of England rather than saluting the American flag. In 1781, in the midst of the Revolutionary War, Virginia Militia Captain Jack Jouett Jr. and his horse were credited with saving Thomas Jefferson and. The horses were able to breed freely. Natural selection rather than artificial selected breeding has resulted in the horses we now know as the Galiceño Horse. This area of Mexico is relatively isolated on the coast because of the high mountains with dense cloud forests, so the horses remained relatively pure Horses, mules, and oxen were used for transportation. They pulled supply wagons, ambulances, artillery pieces, and anything else that needed to be moved. Officers directed battle from horseback, messengers on horses made communication more efficient, and cavalrymen lived and fought in the saddle

Horses in the United States - Wikipedi

  1. By 1887, more than 20 companies (and 8,000 horses!) provided horsecar service around Boston. Bloated fares and fierce competition for customers led the General Court of Massachusetts to pass an act that consolidated all horsecar companies into the West End Street Railway. At the time, it was one of the largest street rail operations in America
  2. Another popular means of travel, especially in the southern colonies, was by horseback. Because of the ease of transport horses afforded, many colonists bought a horse as soon as they could afford its maintenance. The price of a horse ranged from £5 - £1000, depending on breeding, speed, and ability
  3. Colonial and Early National Transportation, 1700-1800 By the first decades of the eighteenth century, Maryland's transportation system consisted of numerous navigable waterways (Augustine Herrman's great 1683 map gave depth soundings for many of them), and a rapidly growing network of roads (Gould 1915; Quinn 1982:290-293) (Figure 3)
  4. Horses were first domesticated on the plains of northern Kazakhstan some 5,500 years ago -- 1,000 years earlier than thought -- by people who rode them and drank their milk, researchers said on.
  5. Expanding Holding Pens. As of August 2016, there were 12,430 wild horses and 1,081 burros in short-term feedlot-style holding corrals, another 31,588 horses in long term pastures, and 562 in.
  6. The horse and wheel gave a great boost to man's ability to move goods from place to place. A man can carry about 50 pounds, a horse can pack 200 pounds, but a horse and a wheeled vehicle can transport up to twice the horses own weight; consequently a 1,000 pound horse could move 2,000 pounds of cargo to penned animal or shops in the city
  7. Horses and horse-drawn conveyances remained the primary method of transportation through most of the century, at least for local travel. Toward the end of the 1800s, the automobile came into existence, although most 19th-century designs saw very limited adoption. Before the widespread use of the steam engine, travel by water had to take.
Visiting the Wild Spanish Mustangs of North Carolina

Uses of Horses Throughout History History of Horse

  1. Official Art from the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. They were used as beasts of burden to pull pieces of artillery, supply trains, and other materials. Horses also served as transportation for soldiers and as integral members of cavalry units. In fact, horses and their transportation capabilities were so important on the.
  2. Police Transportation History 1800's Originally police officers patrolled on foot or on horseback. No other means of transportation was available. This means of transportation was considered to be effective and efficient in those early days. By the late 1800's, in addition to foot patrol and horseback, law enforcement officers used horse draw
  3. These were the horses that made the Plains Indian into the toughest mounted warrior the world had ever seen. When crossed with the descendants of Janus, Sir Archy, Printer and Tiger, the western Mustang added the last important shot of hybrid vigor to complete the creation of a horse unique to America the American Quarter Horse
  4. The Horse car followed on from the omnibus. The trolley car, streetcar or tram were wheeled vehicles that ran on rails and were propelled by electricity instead of horses. The Horse car for kids. John Quincy Adams was the 6th American President who served in office from March 4, 1825 to March 4, 1829. One of the innovations in transportation.
  5. Reopening slaughterhouses in America is not the answer to ending this form of cruelty. In fact, even when horse slaughter facilities operated in the United States, tens of thousands of American horses were still exported to other countries for slaughter. Additionally, long-distance transport is an inherent aspect of this industry
  6. Up until the late 19th century, before the introduction of the automobile, there were very few major highways or roads on which to travel, and most people went by either horse-driven coach or railway. Coaches were bumpy and uncomfortable, mainly because the use of springs for shock absorption wasn't common
  7. g 'solved' by gene study. Horses were domesticated 6,000 years ago on the grasslands of Ukraine, southwest Russia and west Kazakhstan, a genetic study shows. Domestic horses.

A Song for the Horse Nation presents the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present. Drawing upon a treasure-trove of stunning historical objects-including ledger drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, paintings, and other objects-and new pieces by contemporary Native artists, the exhibition reveals how horses shaped the social. Early Transportation on the Great Plains, by Randall Parrish. As early, possibly, as the beginning of the 17th century, the first wheeled vehicle made its appearance in this neighborhood but was probably never used on the Plains outside New Mexico.This was the carreta, built without nails or a scrap of iron, being a rude ox-cart, so heavy that no other motive power could pull it Railroads In The Gilded Age (1880s) With the Transcontinental Railroad's completion, ever greater numbers of Americans headed west for new opportunities and a fresh start. Most new rail construction through the mid-1870's had been concentrated predominantly east of the Mississippi River. However, as folks headed west, the iron horse followed

Horses and Their Effect on American Cultur

The Indians got their first horses from the Spanish. When the Spanish explorers Coronado and DeSoto came into America they brought horses with them. This was in the year of 1540. Some horses got away and went wild. But, the Indians did not seem to have done much with these wild horses. They did not start to ride or use horses until much later The following educational lesson is a continuation of Civil War Horses, and is adapted from an article written by James R. Cotner that originally appeared in the March 1996 issue of America's Civil War magazine. Additional credits are listed below. During the American Civil War (1861 - 1865) it is estimated that between 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 equines died, including horses, mules, donkeys. Before tractors and trucks were in widespread use, the circus carried two types of horses. Baggage stock were the draft horses used to move the wagons between the train and the lot and in the show parade and the ring stock which were the horses that performed in the show Horse-drawn steam trucks were in use from 1840 until World War I throughout the United States. Because of the added weight of the steam pump, it was necessary to have a large team of horses to pull the truck, thus requiring cities to provide stables and upkeep for large numbers of horses

Native Americans, notably the Nez Perce, Shoshone, and Comanche, took readily to horses and used them primarily for transportation. As wild horse numbers diminished drastically during the 1900s, Congress passed the Wild Free Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971, protecting the established herds of the American west In any case, Hernando Cortez, a Spanish conquistador, landed 16 or 17 horses on the N American mainland in 1519. After a long absence, American horses were back on their native soil. Horses for Settlers. North American Indigenous peoples were quick to adopt the use of horses, and horses moved from one tribe to another, generally by theft

Fortunately, human beings learned to use animals such as donkeys, horses and camels for transportation from 4000 BC to 3000 BC. In 3500 BC, the wheel was invented in Iraq and the first wheel was made from wood. Initially, a canoe-like structure was used for water transportation, which was built by burning logs and digging out the burned wood Clydesdale horses are among the most-famous breeds of horses in beer transportation. It's a 67-inch (170-cm) high horse and was named after a Scottish region. In the United States, from 1933 to. As the first major canals were being constructed in the 1820s and 1830s they provided significant economies of scale for North American inland transportation. While a horse could carry one-eighth of a ton, a canal barge could carry 30 tons. Two canal systems emerged, one east of the Appalachians along the East Coast and one west of the. Facts about Horse Slaughter The former US-based, foreign owned horse slaughter companies and a handful of trade associations that support horse slaughter have contributed to the continued export of tens of thousands of America's horses for slaughter in Mexico and Canada either by physically shipping horses to slaughter or by actively opposing legislation banning horse slaugh

History of trains. Trains have been a popular form of transportation since the 19th century. When the first steam train was built in 1804, people were worried that the speed would make rail passengers unable to breathe or that they would be shaken unconscious by the vibrations. But by the 1850s, passengers were traveling at previously. Sealskin skirts were wrapped around the occupant's waist to prevent water from entering the boat. Umiaks were large, open boats mainly used for travel. Umiaks were open, wooden, skin-covered boats. They were larger than kayaks, 7-10 m long and 2.5 m wide, and could carry between 10 and 15 people. They were generally used to move from camp to. Donkeys are not native to North America. During his second voyage to the Americas, Christopher Columbus brought horses and donkeys to the New World. Donkeys served as pack animals in much the same way that they did back in Spain, but they were also used to create strong riding mules as well

Once in the Americas, they were bred and produced mule offspring. The mules were used by the Spanish throughout their conquests. It was not until the gold rush that donkeys become increasingly important in America. During this time, donkeys were used for hauling gold around the mountainous mines The animals were likely even more excited: About 8 million horses died in the four years of fighting, and it's safe to assume the 1,500 D-Types produced for the military kept that number from. Many of the horses used for these new training efforts were once mustangs, also known as wild horses. While not fully bringing back the cavalry from our country's early history, U.S. Special Forces use horses for small units to move around battlefields and travel long distances without the need for gasoline and massive logistical efforts The well-to-do could afford horses, and used them for personal transportation, but most people just walked. The poor harnessed the sturdy and practical ox to a wagon for longer travels. But most 19th century cities were no wider than two miles and highly walkable

How long did it take to get horse-drawn carriages off the

  1. Arriving on the decks of Spanish caravels and galleons in 1493 and 1518, the horses of Christopher Columbus and Hemân Cortés are the first ancestors of the horses of America. In prehistoric times, large numbers of wild animals lived in large herds on the plains of North America. Among these herds were bison and horses. The Indians hunted them for their meat. The horses did not come with the.
  2. When the Spanish brought horses over, some had gotten loose. Others had been stolen and used by the people in the area. However, you are most likely talking about Plains Indians. They used dogs a.
  3. In the late 1880s, New York City was occupied by 1,206,299 people, and about 170,000 horses for transportation. Because the horses were commonly overworked and abused, the average streetcar horse.

The Big Shift Last Time: From Horse Dung to Car Smog The

History of Freight Transportation. Throughout the centuries there have been many modes of freight transportation. For many years, goods traveled to their destinations by way of horse drawn wagons. This mode of moving freight was slow and often dangerous. Later, with the introduction of the railway system, business owners could send goods across. There were profound changes in the use of the land. To put it simply, horses run on oats that the farmer had to grow. Tractors run on gasoline that the farmer has to buy. In 1915, an estimated 93 million acres of cropland (27 percent of the total harvested acres) were used to grow feed for horses and mules Railways were in use in the United States early in its history. Cars and carriages to transport goods and people were pulled by horses along tracks or sent down hills--and then pulled up again--from the 1810's. Those who recognized the power of controlled steam, though, saw that it was not only for use on the rivers, but also on land

Bennett Buggies - Horses Pull Cars

Native American horses became very popular for transportation when they did come back due to the Spanish settlers. The first tribes that used Native American horses were the tribes that spread through what is now New Mexico into Texas and quickly became very popular among the Native indigenous people What Did the Blackfoot People Use for Transport? The Blackfoot people initially used dogs to pull their belongings on a sled-like device called a travois while they walked alongside. When they encountered horses in the 18th century, the dogs were quickly eclipsed by these much larger, stronger and more versatile animals. The Blackfoot pursued. The radios of each division were carried along on pack horses. [Information from: German Horse Cavalry and Transport, Intelligence Bulletin, March 1946.] Japan: The Imperial Japanese Army was less mechanized than European countries or the U.S. They relied heavily on horses for artillery and transport of men and supplies

Continued use of wagons for some commercial applications such as milk delivery helped a few to survive into the 1920s, and it was another twenty years before the last wagon maker disappeared from the city directory. But long before then the horse-drawn vehicle and the industry which produced it had become a thing of the past. Thomas A. Kinne Electric traction—transport systems, tracked and not, that run on electricity—made possible both the interurban and the streetcar, which replaced railcars drawn by horses and sometimes by cable. As early as the 1830s, inventors were using batteries to power railcars, but those systems were slow and ran only short distances

Horse Background and History - Theodore Roosevelt National

The accepted age seems to be 4-years-old. The ox was probably the first wild animal that was trained to serve man as a draft animal. A cow likely was used, due to the ease in handling her as opposed to handling a bull. When the pilgrims came to America in 1620 the only draft animals they had were themselves and their families World War I: American Expeditionary Forces Get Motorized Transportation. When the guns of August 1914 thundered into action, the principal means of military transport was what it had been since the dawn of organized warfare-the backs of men or animals, or wagons drawn by them. At the outset of World War I, the faithful horse and mule were.

These images show some of the many types of transportation used in California by Californians — and by people coming to California from elsewhere — during the mid-19th to early 20th centuries. Whether by horse and carriage, train, boat, automobile, or even airplane, transportation was vital to California's growth and success Draft animals provided most of the power on all types of farms, however. As of 1910, there were more than 24 million horses and mules on American farms, about three or four animals for the average farm. In addition to supplying farm power, the horses were also relied upon for transportation, of both goods and people

Peruvian Paso – Richard Beal

The idea of a neat transition from horses to the automobile age is a history-as-approved-by-victors myth that elides several decades when horse travel declined but automobiles were uncommon, used primarily to haul freight. The automobile as we now conceive it, a personal transport machine, wouldn't come along for nearly half a century The first trolleys were pulled by horses and were in wide-spread use before the advent of electricity in the 1880s. The electric trolleys used the steel wheels from old horse-drawn trolleys. Many trolley and tram systems used metal rails, but ran on streets that were also used by horses, pedestrians, and eventually automobiles Empire of the Horse. Part of the Horse exhibition. The vast Mongol empire, ruled by Genghis Khan and his descendants in the 1200s and 1300s, covered most of Asia, the Middle East, and Russia. Far larger than any empire built by the Greeks, Romans, or Russians, it stretched from the Mediterranean to the Pacific Ocean, making it the largest mass. Horse-drawn boats were used for goods as well as for public transport. A painting of horses used for transportation during the 18th dynasty in Ancient Egypt. Image source. Oxen. An ox is a bull that has been castrated. The term is also used to refer to any cattle used as beasts of burden. Oxen have many uses. They can be used for ploughing.

How Horses Transformed Life for Plains Indians - HISTOR

For centuries the long proven method of land-based transportation was via four-legged animals (horse, donkey, mule, camel, etc.) while wind or man-powered watercraft were used on rivers, lakes, and oceans. It was not until the steam engine's invention did everything chance However, the American quarter horse is often considered to be the fastest horse breed, and the American Quarter Horse Association states these horses have reached speeds of up to 55 mph (88.5 km/h)

The compartment for the travellers has the shape of a shallow U, with a protective roof above. There is a door on each side and the coach can seat four people, in pairs facing each other. The coachman, driving the horses, sits above the front wheels. From 1680 glass windows keep out the weather, where previously there were only blinds Traps were country pleasure driving vehicles that were sometimes used for hunting. A small compartment in the back of the vehicle was sometimes used to house a dog, and the early traps would later become the more elaborate dog carts in America. Traps could accommodate two to four passengers and were very easy to handle A LTHOUGH horses were unknown to the Indians of North America before the advent of the Spaniards, many of the tribes living in the great plains area were already in possession of these animals before the first explorers and traders reached them. This rapid diffusion of the horse well in advance of the on-coming white men proved an important. They were loaded with supplies and that were fastened near the horses' withers on the other end. The travois was originally made to be pulled by dogs but was later adapted for use with horses. With invention of the wheel, horses became even more important. Now they could pull large loads of food, water, and supplies. They could also be used.

Mythical Melting Pot: America's Heritage: THE WILD MUSTANG

COVERED WAGON, the means of transcontinental transportation used for two centuries of American history. The covered wagon was fundamentally a wagon box with a framework of hoop-shaped slats over which a canvas tent was stretched to make a covered wagon. Each wagon was drawn by several teams of horses, mules, or oxen History of horses during WWI. WW1. When war began in 1914 the British army possessed a mere 25,000 horses. The War Office was given the urgent task of sourcing half a million more to go into battle. They were essential to pull heavy guns, to transport weapons and supplies, to carry the wounded and dying to hospital and to mount cavalry charges The American horse population is not nearly so volatile as these con-flicting figures seem to indicate. Indeed, vast changes have occurred in equine numbers over the past century, with as many as six million horses and mules disappearing in a single decade, but those losses were in response to the mechaniza-tion of farming and transportation. In 1917, more than 94,000 horses were sent from North America to Europe and 3,300 were lost at sea. Around 2,700 of these horses died when submarines and other warships sank their vessels. On 28 June 1915, the horse transport SS 'Armenian' was torpedoed by U-24 off the Cornish coast

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Evolution of the Ambulance. Throughout history men devised methods to transport the ill and injured. Hammocks were readily available and used for centuries. During the time of the Romans and Greeks, chariots served as ambulances. In 900 A.D. attendants used a wagon with hammocks in it. While this was a step forward, these wagons lacked. The resupply of horses and other animals was a major concern for the leadership of all sides. At the outbreak of the war, Britain's horse population stood at under 25,000, and so it turned to the United States (which supplied around a million horses during the war), Canada and Argentina. Germany had prepared for war with an extensive breeding. The best horses were used by the cavalry. These horses had to be strong as the average cavalryman's weight was twelve stone and his equipment, saddle, ammunition, etc. usually weighed another nine stone. Men in the cavalry were instructed to take the weight off their horses as much as they could Transportation in the 1850's was a revolution. People were able to travel city to city in the space of an afternoon with the coming of the railroads. Communication between cities and towns was also available instantly due to the telegraph. Telegraph lines ran beside railroad tracks. America was connected through tracks and lines The Automobile and the Environment in American History. by Martin V. Melosi. The Automobile's Imprint on the Landscape. There is little doubt that the widespread use of the automobile, especially after 1920, changed the rural and urban landscapes in America.It is overly simplistic to assume, however, that the automobile was the single driving force in the transformation of the countryside or.